LABOUR [ Remuneration, Incentive & Cost Control]
1. The objectives of group bonus schemes are as following :-
(i) Creation of the collective interest and team sprit among the workers.
(ii) Creation of interest among the superiors to improve performance.
(iii) Reduction of wastage in materials and elimination of idle-time.
(iv) Advertisement of maximum out put of minimum cost.
(v) Encouragement of individual workers forming part of the team where only the output of the team as a whole can be measured.
2. There are five schemes of group bonus, as indicated below :-
(a) Priestman’s Production bonus :- Accordingly to this method when the actual production in units or paints exceed the standard fix, a bonus is paid to the worker as additional of wages equivalent to percentage of actual output over the standard output.
(b) Cost efficiency bonus :- Targets of cost, as for example material cost, Labour Cost and Overhead Cost etc. per unit will be fixed and if the team achieved a reduction in the cost, a portion of the savings is distributed as bonus.
(c) Tower – gain sharing plan :- Under this plan bonus is dependent upon a savings in labour cost as compare to standard. The bonus is calculated at 50% of savings.
(d) Budgeted expenses bonus :- A bonus is determined in advances and paid as a percentage of savings effected in the actual total expenses as compared to the budgeted expenses. It is payable indirect workers also.
(e) Waste Reduction Bonus :- A bonus becomes payable under this schemes, if the team of workers brings about a reduction in the percentage of material wastage as compared the standard set. It is applicable to the industries where material cost assumes a greater proposition of total cost.
3. Apart from gross wages payable to direct workers on the basis of attendance, an industry incurs substantial cost for their benefits. Name four of the benefits. How do you treat each of them in cost.
Ans. Apart from the gross wages payable to direct workers on the basis of attendance, substantial cost in incurred for other benefits. Four of the more items of these benefits are ---
(a) Employer’s contribution to employee provident and pension Fund.
(b) Employer’s contribution to employees state insurance Fund.
(c) Annual Bonus
(d) Earned leave and Festival holiday Pay.
The above expenses can not be allocated to cost units direct for obvious reasons and as such if would be expedient to allocate them to the departments in which the workers are employed.
The cost of fringe benefits should, therefore, be treated as departmental overhead, collected through standing order members allotted for each type such expenses and recorded from production accordingly.
In several cases the expenditure is not incurred uniformly in each accounting period, viz., Holiday pay, retiring and pension benefits, annual bonus etc.
For example, cost of holiday pay, as numbers of holidays varies from year to year, is estimated for a year and proportionate amount for a particular period is charged to production.
As regard retiring and pension benefits a Reserve is usually created in account to meet future payments the amounts of provision made for the purpose is treated as overhead and recovered from production on any suitable basis, say direct wages for a cost center or department. The difference between the amount charged and the actual payments for calculations during a period may carried over to the next period overhead rate . The difference remaining at the end of the period may be charged to the Costing Profit and Loss Account.
Similarly, as the exact amount of profit can only be ascertained after the closing accounts. The bonus payable may be estimated from the budgets profit and recovered from production as overhead on suitable basis, (say, Direct labourers). The difference between the actual payment and the estimated / Budgeted amount may be disposed off like under or absorbed overhead.
4. “High wages do not necessarily mean high labour cost “ – Elucidate
Ans. High wages may result from high basic rates plus an incentive bonus. In developed countries, high productivity from the payment of high wages is expected, resulting in a lower cost per unit of output. The notable adherent of this plan is Mr. Henry Ford of U. S. A. High wages rate systems attempts to retain the simplicity of the time rate method and to provide an incentive at the same time. In return for a time rate which is appreciably higher than the normal wage for the industry, a much higher standard of performance and production from the worker is demand. A worker has to maintain a high standard, if he wants to retain his high wage rate . Standard of efficiency and output are set which the foreman is required to maintain work of each worker is set and he must do it.
High wages offered, therefore attracts most experienced and efficient workers who put their best endeavors to retain their remunerative employment. Furthermore, such workers always aim at less wastage in man hours, materials, equipments, tools and machines without sacrificing the quality of the product which contribute to reduce the cost of production.
5. What are the basic consideration which Govern remuneration of workers ?
a) Economic Principles :-The nation should be in a position to dispose of goods and services produced in the world market at economic prices & imparts such goods & services which are required to maintain the standard of living. Failure to maintain economic production will cause lowering of standard.
What industry will be able to pay as remuneration is tide up with the nations capability to produce good and services at economic prices.
The economically desirable remuneration levels should be similar for all industries. The skill and afford should be properly rewarded.
b) Employer Principles :- An employee wants to increase net profit by producing and selling a greater output at reduced cost through utilisation of labour, materials & machinery. As constant source is on for the means to increase productivity and decrease the cost per man hour. It is, therefore, essential to relate remuneration to time and production, whilst the employer desires to get the maximum profit, should established a well recognized promotion scheme, which can induce additional effort.
c) Employee Principles :-The employee expects an appropriate reward for direct and indirect contribution to production of wealth. A workers duty is to work honesty and expect in return to be fairly rewarded monetarily, physically and mentally. A worker is entitled to reach a satisfactory rate of earning without learning to work excessive hour for it. He also expect adequate lesser time. A stable employment with consistent earnings has a deep influence on the worker’s happiness in his occupation and on his output. A worker should be fairly treated. His feelings and general well being should be respected by management.
6. Name the various factors that are taken into account for determining wages level as well as individual worker’s remuneration.
Factors determining wage levels :-
(a) The demand for the labour and its availability.
(b) The capacity of the industry to pay.
(c) The existence of monopolies.
(d) The bargaining strength of the parties.
(e) The wage level in similar or other industries in the locality/area.
(f) The wage in relation to the cost of living. The wages should conform to the standard commanded by the selected occupation.
(g) The minimum wages should be fixed under the minimum wages Act or Award.
(h) The nature and scale of material benefits such as accommodation, transports, subsidies, canteen etc.
(i) The type of industry, location, tradition, labour relation, characteristic of people employed and quality of management, leadership.
Factors determining individual workers remuneration :-
a) The amount of education and training necessary for the performance of the work.
b) The degree of difficulty, danger & inconvenience associated with the work.
c) The special human characteristics necessary for the performance of the work.
d) The intensity of the effort required.
e) The skill, initiative, sense of responsibility, cooperation and willingness.
f) Time keeping and productivity (quantity of work).
g) Reliability (Quality of work)
h) Royalty to the undertaking in which the worker is employed.
7.. What are the various spheres in connection with labour cost control.
Ans:-The broad spheres pertaining to labour cost control are :
a) Recruitment, placement and training cost.
b) Basis of remunerating labour.
c) Time-keeping and time Booking.
d) Comparison of actual and standard labour cost.
e) Control on indirect labour cost.
f) Quality of the output
g) Productivity of labour.
8. Control of indirect labour cost :
This can be ensured by fixing a ratio of direct to indirect labour. A comparative study in this area will indirect whether excess labour force is employed.
Budgetary control is the best way to control indirect labour cost.
For service departments the budgeted expenditure should be linked with service programme and the ratio control is to be introduced.
With technical help level indirect labour may be fixed up particularly for maintenance programme where monthly servicing programme may be planned.
Classifying direct, indirect expenses by persons or levels who are responsible for such expenses and accountable for the same is an important technique for cost control.
9. How to increase the Productivity of labour ?
a. Minimisation of absenteeism, idle time and overtime through fixation of ceiling limits should be aimed at.
b. Introduce proper environment so that productivity is increased.
c. Starilisation of labour turn over is needed.
d. Incentive schemes should be introduced to foster good labour management relationship.
e. This concerted action by all is necessary to ensure labour cost control.
10. Discuss the two types of cost associated with labour turnover.
Answer : Types of cost associated with labour turnover
Two types of costs which are associated with labour turnover are :
Preventive costs : These includes costs incurred to keep the labour turnover as a low level i.e., cost of medical schemes. If a company incurs high preventive costs, the rate of labour turnover is usually low.
Replacement Costs : These are the costs which arise due to high labour turnover. If men leave soon after they acquire the necessary training and experience of work, additional costs will have to be incurred on new workers, i.e., cost of advertising, recruitment, selection, training and induction, extra cost also incurred due to abnormal breakage of tools and machines, defectives, low output, accidents etc., cause due to the inefficiency and inexperienced new workers.
It is obvious that a company will incur very high replacement costs if the rate of labour turnover is high. Similarly, only adequate preventive costs can keep labour turnover at a low level. Each company must, therefore, workout the optimum level of labour turnover keeping in view its personnel policies and the behaviour of replacement costs and preventive costs at various levels of labour turnover rates.
11. What is overtime premium ? Explain the treatment of overtime premium in cost accounting. Suggest steps for controlling overtime.
Ans:- Overtime premium : Overtime is the amount of wages paid for working beyond normal working hours as specified by Factories Act or by a mutual agreement between the workers union and the management. According to Factories Act of 1948, a worker is entitled for overtime at double rate of his wages (including allowances) if he works beyond 9 hours in a day or 48 hours in a week.
Even where the Act is not applicable, the practice is to pay for overtime work at higher rates usually with a standing agreement between the employer and the workers. Hence, payment of overtime consists of two element, the normal wages i.e., the usual amount, and the extra payment i.e., the premium. This amount of extra payment paid to a worker under overtime is known as overtime premium.
Treatment of Overtime premium in Cost Accounting
In cost accounting the treatment of overtime premium will be as follows :
If the overtime is resorted to at the desire of the customer, then the entire amount of overtime including overtime premium should be charged to the job directly.
If it is due to a general pressure of work to increase the output, the premium as well as overtime wages may be charged to general overheads.
If it is due to the negligence or delay of workers of a particular department, it may be charged to the concerned department.
If it is due to circumstances beyond control, it may be charged to Costing Profit & Loss Account.
Steps for Controlling Overtime :
Important steps for controlling overtime work are as follows :
a) Entire overtime work should be duly Authorised after investigating the reasons for it.
b) Overtime cost should be shown against the concerned department. Such a practice should enable proper investigation and planning of production in future.
c) If overtime is a regular feature, the necessity for necessity for recruiting more men and adding a shift should be considered.
d) If overtime is due to lack of plant and machinery or other resources, steps may be taken to install more machines, or to resort to sub-contracting.
e) If possible an upper limit may be fixed for each category of workers in respect of overtime.
12. What do you mean by time and motions study ? Why is it so important to management ?
Answer: Time and motions study: It is the study of time taken and matins (movements) performed by workers while performing their jobs at the place of their work. Time and motion study has played a significant role in controlling and reducing labour cost.
Time study is concerned is concerned with the determination of standard time required by a person of average ability to perform a job. Motion study, on the other hand, is concerned with determining the proper method of performing a job so that there are no wasteful movements, hiring the worker unnecessarily. However, both the studies are conducted simultaneously. Since materials, tools, equipment and general arrangement of work, all have vital bearing on the method and time required for its completion. Therefore, their study would be incomplete and would not yield its full benefit without a proper consideration of these factors.
Time and motion study is important to management because of the following features :
a) Improved methods, layout, and design of work ensures effective use of men, material and resources.
b) Unnecessary and wasteful methods are pin-pointed with a view to either improving them or eliminating them altogether. This leads to reduction in the work content of an operation, economy in human efforts and reduction of fatigue.
c) Highest possible level of efficiency is achieved in all respect.
d) Provides information for setting labour standards – a step towards labour cost control and cost reduction.
e) Useful for fixing wage rates and introducing effective incentive scheme.
13. What is ‘Idle Capacity’ ? How should this be treated in cost accounts ?
Ans: It is that of the practical capacity which cannot be utilised due to lack of demand, non-availability of materials, skilled labour, shortage of power, fuel or supplies, seasonal nature of product and lower sales expectancy. Idle capacity in fact is the difference between the practical capacity and the capacity based on sales expectancy. In brief, idle capacity is unused capacity of a plant, equipment or department which cannot be used gainfully. It usually arises due to factors which the management of a business concern considers beyond its control.
Idle capacity is associated with costs which are represented mostly by fixed charges such as depreciation, repairs and maintenance, insurance premium, rent, rates, management supervisory costs, which cannot be absorbed or recovered due to under utilisation of plant capacity.
Treatment of idle Capacity in cost accounts :
Idle capacity costs may be normal or abnormal. These costs may be treated in the following ways in cost accounts.
(i) Normal idle Capacity cost due to unavoidable reasons may be included in works overheads and be absorbed into the cost of production either by inflating the overhead rate or by means of a supplementary overhead rate.
(ii) Abnormal Idle Capacity cost due to avoidable reasons such as lack of proper planning and control should be charged to costing profit and loss account.
(iii) Idle Capacity cost due to trade depression is abnormal in nature and thus it should be charged to costing profit and loss account.
14. Idle Time Wages :
Idle time represent the time for which wages are paid but no production is resulted. Idle time can be classified as controllable and uncontrollable, and /or normal and abnormal. The normal and controllable idle time cost should be collected through a standing order number and charged off as an overhead. If the idle time can be allocated to a particular department its cost should be charged off to such departmental overhead and recovered over the units produced. For the normal and uncontrollable idle time such as tool setting up time, tea/Tiffin breaks etc. the labour cost should be calculated after allowing for such cost time and should be properly adjusted. The cost of idle time which is abnormal and uncontrollable should be charged off directly to the Costing profit and Loss Account.
Idle time wages denote the wages paid for the period during which no work was done. Such cost are dealt with in the following manner :-
(i) Charge to factory overheads : If the idle time is of such a nature that it cannot be avoided and the magnitude of idle time is normal, it forms part of the overhead. According to nature of business activities, and for effective control, each type of idle time should be booked to a separate standing order number. Idle time will, thus, conspicuously appear as part of overhead to attract the attention of management for necessary remedial measure.
(ii) Debit to the Profit & Loss Account : If the idle time is abnormal, the resultant expenditure cannot be regarded as part of cost of manufacture. Payment of such idle time of abnormal nature is charged directly to costing profit and loss A/c. If such expenditure is included as part of cost, it will render figures relating to the two periods incomparable. Abnormal overtime arises in cases like strike, lockout, fire, failure of power supply, breakdown of machinery due to inefficiency of maintenance management, bottlenecks in production etc.
15. Fringe Benefits:
Fringe benefits are those expenses which are incurred by an employer against the individual employees for their welfare. Normally such expenses do not form a part of their pay packet, e.g. holiday pay, night shift allowance, pension facilities, ESI contribution by the employer, etc, Such expenses may be recovered separately as a percentage on labour cost or as an hourly rate. Alternatively, these may be treated as overheads and apportioned to cost centers on the basis of wages/salary cost.
16. Learners’ Wages
Wages paid to the learners during the period of their training should not be treated as part of regular wages since during this period they are not in a position to give the normal performances. These wages should be booked under separate standing order numbers and charged as an item of overheads. A fair method for distribution of this wages to various cost centers would be on the basis of number of learners trained in each month for each department. If the period of training varies in different departments a better method would be to distribute on the basis of number of training hours.
17. Non-monetary Incentives :
Non-monetary incentives are usually those benefits provided to the employees which are not paid to them directly. These are related more to conditions of employment rather then specific job functions. These incentives vary widely. Sometimes, they are provided free of cost while in other cases nominal charges are made. Main objectives of this scheme are to make the employment more attractive and also to keep the staff happy and contended.
Example of such incentive are :
(a) Free medical treatment for self and family.
(b) Canteen facilities, provision of subsidized meals
(c) Recreational facilities.
(d) Provision of accommodation, free transport, or subsidized transport.
(e) Educational facilities for the children of employees.
18. Time Card and Job Card :
(1) Time card is a document used to record the time of arrival and that of departure of workers in a factory and the information on total time spent thus obtained is used for calculating the wages payable to him where the method of remuneration is on time basis.
Job card on the other hand is a document used for recording the time spent by the workers on different jobs during the total time he has spent in the factory.
(2) Where both time card and job card are used, the difference between the total time as recorded in time card and the time spent on jobs as available in job card will represent the idle time which may be the sum of time consumed to arrive or wait at the place of work from gate, for transition from one job to another, due to power failure, raw material shortages, etc. The information is very helpful for making managerial decisions.
(3) Time cards are useful for computing wages whereas job cards are extensively used for allocating wages on the basis of time spent on individual jobs.
19. Time Rate Wages and Piece Rate Wages :
Under Time rate system of wages payment, the unit of measurement for remunerating the workers is time. This system disregards the output of a worker. The wages rte of the workers may be determined on hourly, daily, weekly or monthly basis.
Piece work system, on the other hand, represents a method of remunerating workers by results. Under this system payment is made with reference to output produced.
In case of time wages total amount paid to a worker is calculated on time worked by him irrespective of the volume of output produced by him whereas in piece rte system the total amount payable to a worker moves directly with the number of pieces turned out by him.
Time wages are applicable in circumstances where units of output are not distinguishable or measurable, or employees have very little control on the quantity of output and there is no clear cut relationship between this efforts and output, or where quality of output is more important than quantity. Piece wages on the other hand are normally applied where quantity of output is measurable, or there exists a clear relationship between employee effort and output, or quality considerations are less important.
20. Casual worker and outworker :
A worker who is appointed for a short duration to carry on normal business activities in place of a regular but temporarily absent worker. Such a worker is also known as daily wager or ‘badlies’. A casual worker do not enjoy the facilities available to a regular worker.
A worker who do not work in the factory premises but either he works in his home or t a site outside the factory is known as an outworker. An outworker who workers in his home is usually compensated on the basis of his output. He is supplied with raw materials and tools necessary for carrying out the job. An outwork (outside the factory) is usually engaged on specialised jobs/contract work
21. Foreman’s salary :
The foreman is mainly concerned with the supervision of man and machines in the workshop and so his salary is “works indirect expense” and must be charged to works expenses account and included in works overhead. It is apportioned on the basis of degree of supervision required on such machine or men.
If he devotes equal time for all the machines his salary should be equally charged off against all of them. In case he devotes more time to a particular machine or to a particular batch of workers proportionately higher share of his salary should be borne by the particular machine or batch of workers.
22. Bonus Payable under the Payment of Bonus Act. 1965
The payment of Bonus Act. 1965 provides that to the eligible employees a minimum bonus @ 8.1/3% of gross annual earnings will have to be paid irrespective of profits made or losses incurred. If there is adequate profit a higher bonus may be paid but the maximum limit is 20% of gross earnings. Therefore it is clear that the minimum bonus is a definite charge against profit because even in case of loss this bonus is payable and according to the classification of labour-direct or indirect -should be included in direct labour cost of production overhead .The portion of bonus over and above the minimum is based on profit and should be charged off to Costing Profit and Loss Account and not taken into the cost at all. However, some accounts argue that this portion of bonus should also be taken into the cost in appropriate head of direct labour or production overhead. But the former treatment should be taken as more sensible.
23. Leave Travel Assistance :
Leave travel assistance is paid to practically all the employees presently and therefore can be considered as a regular element of labour or staff cost as the case may be. This expenditure is of a fixed nature and can be easily predetermined. Depending whether the assistance is payable to direct labour, indirect labour or staff the expenditure should be treated as direct labour cost, production overhead cost or administrative / selling overhead cost and should be appropriately charges.
24. Night Shift Allowance :
It is a customary practice that the persons working in night shifts are paid some extra and such an allowance is known as night shift allowance . Such additional expenditure caused by general pressure of work in excess of normal capacity are charged to general production overhead because otherwise jobs performed during days will be cheaper than the jobs completed during nights which by no means a fair proposition. If the additional expenditure is incurred extremely as a result of pressing demands from customers such expenditure should directly be charged to the job concerned. On the other hand if the night shifts are run for the default of a particular department the night shift allowance should be charged as the departmental overhead applicable to the concerned department.
25. Labour Turnover :
It is the rate of change in the labour force during a specified period measured against a suitable index. The standard or usual labour turnover in the industry or locally or the labour turnover rate for a past period may be taken as the index or normal against which actual turnover rate is compared. The methods of calculating labour turnover are given below :
Labour Turnover = Number of employees replaced .
Average number of employees on roll
= Number of employees separated during a year ____
Average number of employees on rolls during the year
= Number of employees separated + Number of employees replaced
Average number of employees on rolls during the period
26. Causes of labour turnover: The main causes of labour turnover in an organisation/industry can be broadly classified under the following three heads :
a. Personal Causes
b. Unavoidable Causes, and
c. Avoidable Causes
Personal causes are those which induce or compel workers to leave their jobs such causes includes the following:
i. Change of jobs for betterment.
ii. Premature retirement due to ill health or old age.
iii. Domestic problems and family responsibilities.
iv. Discontentment over the jobs and working environment.
In all the above cases the employee leaves the organisation at his will and, therefore, it is difficult to suggest any possible remedy in the first three cases. But the last one can be overcome by creating conditions leading to a healthy working environment. For this, officers should play a positive role and make sure that their subordinates work under healthy working conditions.
Unavoidable causes are those under which it becomes obligatory on the part of management to ask some or more of their employees to leave the organisation, such causes are summed up as listed below :
i. Seasonal nature of the business;
ii. Shortage of raw materials, power, slack market for the product etc :
iii. Change in the plant location;
iv. Disability, making a worker unfit for work;
v. Disciplinary measures;
vi. Marriage (generally in the case of women).
Avoidable causes are those which require the attention of management on a continuous basis so as to keep the labour turnover ratio as low as possible. The main causes under this case are indicated below;
1. Dissatisfaction with job, remuneration, hours of work, working conditions, etc
2. Strained relationship with management, supervisors or follow workers;
3. Lack of training facilities and promotional avenues;
4. Lack of recreational and medical facilities;
5. Low wages and allowances.
Proper and timely management action reduce the labour turnover appreciably so far as avoidable causes are concerned.
27. Effects of labour turnover :
The effect of labour turnover on cost of production is that high labour turnover increases the cost of production in the following ways :
Even flow of production is disturbed; Efficiency of new workers is low; productivity of new but experienced workers is low in the beginning;
There is increased cost of training and induction;
New workers cause increased breakage of tools, wastage of materials etc.
In some companies, the labour turnover rates is as high as 100%; it is means that on the average, all the work is being done by new and inexperienced workers. This is bond to lower efficiency and production and increases the cost of production.
28. Remedial steps to minimise labour turnover :The following steps are useful for minimising labour turnover.
- Exit Interview: An interview may be arranged with each outgoing employee to ascertain the reasons of his leaving the organisation.
2. Job analysis and evaluation : Before recruiting workers, job analysis and evaluation may be carried out to ascertain the requirements of each job.
3. Scientific system of recruitment, placement and promotion : The organisation should make use of a scientific system of recruitment selection, placement and promotion for employees.
4. Enlightened attitude of management : The management should introduce the following steps for creating a healthy working atmosphere.
Service rules should be framed, discussed and approved among management and workers, before their implementation. Provide facilities for education and training of workers. Introduce a procedure for settling workers grievance.
5. Use of Committee : Issues like control over workers handing their grievances etc., may be dealt by a committee, comprising of members from management and workers.
26. What is the impact of ‘Labour Turnover’ on a manufacturing organisation’s working ?
Labour turnover refers to the rate of change in the composition of labour force of a concern during a specified period of time. The impact of labour turnover on a manufacturing organisation’s working is manifold.
In fact the labour turnover increases the cost of production in the following ways :
Even flow of production is disturbed.
Cost of recruitment and training increases.
Breakage of tools, wastage of materials increases.
Overall production decreases due to the time lost between the leaving and recruitment of new workers.
Reduction is sales accounts for loss of contribution and goodwill consequently.
Total Earnings of Worker = Basic + DA + OT + Bonus or Incentive
Rules For labour costs
Labour Cost of Employer = Total Earnings of Worker + Employer’s contribution to PF & ESI
Basic Wages computation
1. Time Basis = Hrs worked ´ Rate per Hr.
2. Production Basis = Units produced ´ Rate per unit
3. Guaranteed Time Wages = Highest of Basic Wages under Time Or Production basis
Bonus or Incentive computation
A. Efficiency plan
B. Individual incentive
C. Group Bonus Scheme
A. Efficiency is measured as following
a. on time basis time allowed ¸ time taken
b. on output basis actual output ¸ standard or budgeted output
c. on cost basis budgeted cost ¸ actual cost
B. Individual incentive
Halsey system = 50% of time saved ´ Time rate
Rowan system = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ ´ Time taken ´ Rate per hour
C. Group Bonus Scheme : As suggested in the problem
(i) Replacement method = Number of employees replaced ¸ Average number of employees. . on rolls during the year
(ii) Separation method = Number of employees separated during the year ¸ Average number . of employees on rolls during the year
(iii) New Recruitment Method = No. of workers newly Employed ¸ ¸ Average number of . employees on rolls during the year
(iv) Flux method = ( Number of employees separated + replaced ) ¸ Average number of . employees on rolls during the period
(v) If there is new recruitment , then the calculation should be
Number of employees ( separated + accessions )
Flux method = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ ´ 100
Average number of employees on rolls during the period
Note : 1. Separation = Resign + Retirement + Retrenchment + Death
2. Accessions= Replacement + New recruitment .
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