Communication Notes and Summaries

Meaning of Communication

Process or medium of exchanging information idea knowledge and emotion from one party from another (i.e. senders to receiver) with specific objective.

Physical flow of information in such a way that the message designed and intend by the sender is received and understood by the receiver with same objective and meaning. Communication is the heart of organization which links people together through expression of emotional meaning. If also refers to the flow of information and understanding between sender and receiver so communication is the complete process of encoding message by sender drafting through the channel decoding by the receiver and responding to the sender.

Features  of  communication

1.   Goal oriented

2.   Pervasive

3.   Continuous

4.   Dynamic

5.   Management function

6.   Two parties

7.   Two way

8.   Formal and informal verbal and in verbal

9.   Flow of information and understanding

Importance of communication

1.   Planning

2.   Organizing

3.   Staffing


4.   Leading

5.   Controlling

6.   Decision making

7.   Developing of inter relationship

8.   Increase image and goodwill of organization

9.    Competitive strength

10. Part of SWOT analysis

11. Psychological satisfaction to members


Types of communication

Formal and informal

i. Formal communication

Communication based on organizational structure. Rules and regulation and scalar principle so channel of information, information source and other activities.are controlled by organizational structure. It is an official form of.communication which includes following types:

A. Upward communication

Communication from subordinates to superior

B. Downward communication

    Communication from superior to subordinates . Like order command etc..

C. Horizontal communication

Communication between members of same level and position which communicates interdepartmental activities and experience.


D. Diagonal communication

Communication between members of different level and department of an organization. It is also called lateral communication.

ii. Informal communication

This type of communication is an unofficial form of communication which is neither designed by organization nor by structural system. So members exchange information on the basis of friendships social and public relationship. It exchange personal information as well as other organizational activities through grapevine and rumors.

  1. Grapevine refers to information given by person sources is known.
  2. In rumors sources of information is unknown.

Verbal and in verbal communication

Verbal communications refers communication through the clear words sentences and composition of properly worded meaning between communicators.

Nonverbal communications means communications without clear word and sentences but by using signal, symbols, graph, and picture. Like kinesiks, body language, with posture and gesture, colour language etc.

Interpersonal communication

It is communication in face to face interaction discussion or by using direct channel or communication, either in oral or written form.

Barriers of communication

1.   Organizational barriers

a.    Goal plan and policy
b.    Structure
c.    Communication systems
d.   Skill of member
e.   Information overload
f.     Physical arrangement
g.    Layout designing
h.   Position and ego of members
i.     Distance within organization
j.     Organizational technology
k.    Nature and size of organization


2.   Psychological barriers

a.    Ego and status
b.   Perception and feelings
c.    Mood and emotion
d.   View and opinion
e.   Prematured evaluation
f.    Filtering
g.    No attention
h.   Pre occupied pre judgement
i.     Pseudo listening ( viz. False listening)

3.   Physical barriers

a.    Noise
b.   Physical distance
c.    Physical arrangement

4.   Semantic barriers

a.    Harsh language
b.   Vague language
c.    Poor language
d.   Technical language
e.    Jargons language

5.   Socio-culltural barriers

a.    Social status
b.   Social rules and regulation
c.    Religion of communication
d.    Ethnical backgrounds

6.   Technological barriers

a.    Poor technology
b.   Loss of transmission
c.     No technological coverage and support


Strategies for Improving communications

1.   Two way communication
2.   Open door policy
3.   Grievance handling
4.   Counceling
5.   Employee meetings
6.   Empowerment and participation
7.   Use if email
8.   Feedback
9.   Effective listening
10. Clear language
11. Clear goals and target audience
12. Climate of trust
13. Avoid information overload
14. Reduce psychological barriers
15. Structural redesign


Communication channels

Formal communications

Communications on between superior and subordinates on the basis of chain of command.

Central member or leader communicates with all other members. i.e. all information are exchange through the leader only.

Each members communicates each other on both side.                      

All channel
All members communicates wit each other.

Informal communication

Single strand  
One members communicate with another one.

One members communicate with all others.

Each members randomly tells others.

Some members tells others.